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Logic and Accuracy Testing

Logic and Accuracy Testing Procedures for the Butler County Board of Elections

Per Directive 2023-25 (Section 5.08)

To ensure that all electronic voting systems are accurately and uniformly tabulating votes cast during an election, all boards of elections must conduct Logic and Accuracy (“L&A”) Testing before conducting the required Pre-Election Public Testing. L&A Testing is the systematic pre-election testing of every component of a voting system with every ballot style to demonstrate that the ballots are accurate and that votes cast will be tabulated properly. It is conducted by processing a pre-audited group of ballots that are marked to record a predetermined number of valid votes for each contest. It must include for each contest one or more ballots that contain more votes than the number allowed in order to ensure that the automatic tabulating equipment can reject overvotes. Boards must conduct L&A Testing before every election on each voting machine and component of automatic tabulating equipment, including backup machines and equipment, in order to confirm its functionality. Under no circumstances should a board deploy any voting equipment that has not undergone L&A Testing. The board should conduct thorough L&A testing prior to the distribution of any ballots to voters.

The board must develop and adopt a policy and procedure for the bipartisan testing of all voting equipment and ballots. Below are minimum requirements for testing that must be incorporated into the procedures. Boards must also use instructions provided by the voting system manufacturer and incorporate those instructions into the procedure. The procedures must be in checklist form to maintain the structure of the testing and to ensure no critical steps are missed.


  • Inspect the physical condition of the equipment—for example, check plugs and ports because damage to these areas may not be readily apparent:
  • Check to make sure ballot box is empty; Verify the memory device or storage media has the correct data loaded for the election that is tested;
  • Turn on each unit in Election Day mode to calibrate and test date and time, firmware, and battery status;
  • Print a “zero report” and check to be certain that all vote totals are at zero;
  • Verify that all races are printed on the report;
  • Scan and process ballots;
  • Run the results totals;
  • Review results;
  • Replace printer paper as necessary;
  • Close and power down the unit;
  • Remove the memory device and storage media;
  • Remove the test ballots from the ballot storage container;
  • Import the results into the election management system;
  • Secure the memory device or storage media and perform necessary steps to clear any results totals;
  • Maintain ballots in machine order/precinct order;
  • After all units are tested, upload the results to the election management system and run the report;
  • Compare the results to the test script; Chapter 5: Ballots 162
  • For central scanning, scan and process the complete test deck, upload the results, and run a report. Then do integrated testing to compare with precinct results; and
  • For accessible voting equipment, listen to all audio and test at least 2 ballot styles for all functionalities.


  • Inspect the physical condition of the equipment—for example, check plugs and ports because damage to these areas may not be readily apparent;
  • Document the serial number of each unit;
  • Turn on each unit in Election Day mode to calibrate and test date and time, firmware, and backup battery status. To calibrate a DRE, make sure the screen is positioned at the same height and angle that it will be at on Election Day. Use a stylus or bottom of a pen or pencil (not your finger) in order to get the most accurate calibration;
  • Confirm the software and firmware numbers match the expected, certified configuration;
  • Inspect the physical condition of the memory cards and clear all information off of each card;
  • Print your zero tape and check to be certain all vote totals are at zero;
  • Ensure that all races are present;
  • Unplug the unit and check that the battery backup is functioning;
  • Use a test script that includes the following:
    • A review of summary screen, accessibility features test (including sip & puff and jelly switch)
    • An audio test for all headers, contests, and candidates for each ballot style, including write-ins
    • A test of a magnified ballot, ensuring that it is not distorted, unreadable, and that it remains in calibration for each ballot style
    • A confirmation that the voter-verified paper audit trail (“VVPAT”) prints correctly, including rejected ballots
  • At end of L&A Test, print several ballot VVPAT tapes in order to help determine how many paper rolls or ballot canisters you will need for Election Day;
  • Power down the unit in order to ensure it powers down correctly;
  • Check paper supply to ensure both VVPAT and internal audit record have enough paper for Election Day;
  • Maintain detailed documentation and post-test security measures;
  • Seal each device properly so it is ready for Election Day;
  • Conclude your L&A testing by performing an integrated test combining results from all sources (optical scan precinct count, central count, and voting machines).

When L&A testing, boards should create a file for each machine that stays with the machine, so it is easy to keep track of machine performance. Remember to check ALL ballot styles, including rotation and write-in votes, along with the integration of all elections systems to be used, including accessible devices, absentee ballot devices, ballot on demand systems, the election management system (“EMS”) tallying of votes, and electronic pollbooks activating the ballot. The board must test every ballot style before each election. All ballot styles produced for an election must be tested, including ballots provided to polling locations for use on Election Day. While R.C. 3505.15 outlines the procedure for the sealing of ballots by the print vendor, the board must ensure additional ballots are kept separate for testing purposes. These ballots must be printed and produced in the same manner as the sealed Election Day ballots. At the end of testing, boards should know with confidence that all systems work together, that all the correct candidates appear on ballot, that ballots are printed properly, and that votes can be tallied. Boards will have ensured that election staff can operate the equipment end-to-end, and that the system can load and shut down properly. Lastly, the board will have checked that it has adequate supplies for Election Day.

The vote tabulation system, all components, including the server, and ICX voting units are secured at all times in a locked room at the Board of Elections that can only be accessed by a team of bipartisan staff members.